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Conceptual classification and principle of thermocouple

by:JVTIA     2022-04-08
First, the concept of thermocouple The so-called thermocouple refers to a temperature sensor composed of metal conductors of two different materials. Compared with other thermometers (mercury thermometers, thermistors, etc.), thermocouples mainly used in industrial industries have their own characteristics: ① Fast response speed. ②It can measure a wide range of temperature from -200°C to +1700°C. ③The temperature can be measured at specific points and small spaces. ④ Since the temperature information can be detected as an electrical signal (thermomotive force), it is very convenient to process and analyze the information. ⑤ Cheap and easy to buy. [Grounding type]Grounding type thermocouple The lead wire of the thermocouple is directly welded to the front end of the shell to form a temperature measuring contact. It is characterized by fast response. Since the leads are attached to the case, they cannot be used in noisy or hazardous locations. [Insulation type] The thermocouple lead of the insulated thermocouple is completely insulated from the casing to form a temperature measuring contact. It is not as responsive as the grounded type, but can be used for a long time. Furthermore, it can also be used in noisy or hazardous locations without any influence. [Exposed type] The thermocouple lead wire of this type of thermocouple is exposed from the casing to form a temperature measuring contact. It has the fastest response of the three types and can respond to subtle temperature changes. Can be used where fast response is required, such as engine testing. But the strength is very low, basically can only be used as a one-time use. The basic principle of thermocouple temperature measurement is that the conductors of two different elements form a closed loop. When there is a temperature gradient across the two ends, current will flow in the loop. At this time, an electromotive force - heat is generated between the two ends. Electromotive force, this is the so-called Seebeck effect. Two homogeneous conductors with different compositions are the hot electrodes, the end with higher temperature is the working end, and the end with lower temperature is the free end, and the free end is usually in a certain constant temperature state. According to the functional relationship between thermoelectromotive force and temperature, a thermocouple index table is made; the index table is obtained when the temperature of the free end is 0°C, and different thermocouples have different index tables.
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