The principle of thermocouple
temperature measurement is based on the Seebeck effect, that is: if two homogeneous conductors of different compositions form a closed loop, when there is a temperature gradient at both ends, a current flows through the loop, and there is an electromotive force between the two ends. , also called the Seebeck electromotive force. Its value is only related to the properties of the metal materials that make up the thermocouple and the temperature difference between the two ends, and has nothing to do with the geometric dimensions (length, diameter) of the two hot electrodes of the thermocouple and the temperature distribution along the length of the electrodes. Thermocouple can also be regarded as a kind of transducer, which converts thermal energy into electrical energy, measures the electromotive force generated in the loop, and uses the functional relationship between thermoelectric potential and temperature to achieve the purpose of temperature measurement. Thermocouples are simple in structure, stable in performance, wide in temperature measurement range, high in temperature measurement accuracy, and easy to use. According to the different materials and structures that make up the thermocouple, (the thermocouple can be divided into many varieties). The correct selection and installation of thermocouples is the premise of rational use of thermocouples, which can not only accurately obtain temperature values, ensure product quality, but also save the cost of thermocouple materials. For the selection of thermocouples, firstly, the thermode and maintenance sleeve of the thermocouple should be selected according to the upper limit of the measured temperature and the operating environment, and secondly, the size of the thermocouple should be selected according to the structure and device characteristics of the measured object. Thermocouples can be divided into: general industrial type, Kai-mounted type, high-performance solid type and special type thermocouples according to different construction methods. Common general industrial thermocouples are as follows: platinum germanium 10-platinum thermocouples are precious metal thermocouples, the nominal composition of the positive electrode is platinum germanium alloy (SP) containing 10% germanium, and the negative electrode is pure platinum (SN). The long-term use temperature is 1300 OC, and the short-term use temperature is 1600 cC. The physical and chemical properties are stable and the oxidation resistance is strong. It should be used continuously in an oxidizing and inert environment.
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