is a temperature sensing element. It directly measures the temperature, and converts the temperature signal into a thermoelectromotive force signal, which is converted into the temperature of the measured medium through an electrical instrument (secondary instrument). The basic principle of temperature measurement is that two different material conductors form a closed loop. When there is a temperature gradient at both ends, a current will flow through the loop, and there will be an electromotive force between the two ends - thermoelectromotive force. This is the so-called Seebeck effect. When a third metal material is connected to the thermocouple loop, as long as the temperature of the two junctions of the material is the same, the thermoelectric potential generated by the thermocouple will remain unchanged, that is, it will not be affected by the third metal being connected to the loop. Therefore, when measuring the temperature of the thermocouple, the measuring instrument can be connected, and the temperature of the measured medium can be known after measuring the thermoelectromotive force. Homogeneous conductors with two different compositions are hot electrodes, the higher temperature end is the working end, the lower temperature end is the free end, and the free end is usually at a constant temperature. According to the functional relationship between thermoelectromotive force and temperature, a thermocouple indexing table is made; the indexing table is obtained under the condition that the temperature of the free end is at 0 °C, and different thermocouples
have different indexing tables. Two conductors of different compositions (called thermocouple wires or thermodes) are connected at both ends into a loop. When the temperature of the junction is different, an electromotive force will be generated in the loop. This phenomenon is called the thermoelectric effect. The electromotive force is called thermoelectric potential. Thermocouples use this principle to measure temperature. One end that is directly used to measure the temperature of the medium is called the working end (also called the measurement end), and the other end is called the cold end (also called the compensation end).
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