is one of the most commonly used temperature detection components in the industry. The working principle of the thermocouple is based on the Seeback effect, that is, two conductors with different components are connected to form a loop. The advantages are: ① High measurement accuracy. Because the thermocouple is in direct contact with the measured object, it is not affected by the intermediate medium. ②Wide measuring range. Commonly used thermocouples
can measure continuously from -50 to +1600°C. Some special thermocouples can measure as low as -269°C (such as gold, iron, nickel and chromium), and can reach as high as +2800°C (such as tungsten-rhenium). ③Simple structure and convenient use. Thermocouples are usually composed of two different metal wires, and are not limited by size and beginning, and there is a protective sleeve outside, which is very convenient to use. 1. The basic principle of thermocouple temperature measurement is to weld two different material conductors or semiconductors A and B to form a closed loop. When there is a temperature difference between the two attachment points 1 and 2 of the conductors A and B, an electromotive force is generated between the two, thus forming a large current in the loop. This phenomenon is called the thermoelectric effect. Thermocouples use this effect to work. 2. Types and structure of thermocouples (1) Types of thermocouples Commonly used thermocouples can be divided into two categories: standard thermocouples and non-standard thermocouples. The called standard thermocouple refers to the thermocouple whose thermoelectric power and temperature are stipulated in the national standard, the allowable error, and there is a unified standard graduation table. It has a matching display instrument for selection. Non-standardized thermocouples are inferior to standardized thermocouples in the scope or order of magnitude, and there is generally no unified indexing table, which is mainly used for measurement in some special occasions. Standardized thermocouples. Since January 1, 1988, all thermocouples and thermal resistances have been produced in accordance with IEC international standards, and seven standardized thermocouples of S, B, E, K, R, J, and T are designated as my country’s unified design. Thermocouple. (2) The structure of the thermocouple In order to ensure the reliable and stable operation of the thermocouple, its structure requirements are as follows: ①The welding of the two thermocouples that make up the thermocouple must be firm; ②The two thermocouples should be well connected to each other Ground insulation to prevent short circuits; ③The connection between the compensation wire and the free end of the thermocouple should be convenient and reliable; ④The protective sleeve should be able to ensure that the hot electrode is fully isolated from the harmful medium.
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