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The working principle and internal structure analysis of thermocouple

by:JVTIA     2022-01-23
The thermocouple is one of the commonly used temperature detection components in the industry. Its strengths are: ① High measurement accuracy. Because the thermocouple directly touches the measured object, it is not affected by the central medium. ②Wide scale of measurement. Commonly used thermocouples can be continuously measured from -50 to +1600°C. Some special thermocouples can measure as low as -269°C (such as gold, iron, nickel and chromium), and as high as +2800°C (such as tungsten-rhenium). ③Simple structure and convenient use. Thermocouples are usually composed of two different metal wires, and are not restricted by the size and initial size, and there is a maintenance sleeve outside, which is very convenient to use. 1. The basic principle of thermocouple temperature measurement is to weld two different material conductors or semiconductors A and B to form a closed loop. When there is a temperature difference between the two attachment points 1 and 2 of the conductors A and B, an electromotive force occurs between the two, thus forming a large and small current in the loop. This phenomenon is called the thermoelectric effect. Thermocouples use this effect to work. 2. Varieties and structure of thermocouples (1) Varieties of thermocouples Commonly used thermocouples can be divided into two categories: standard thermocouples and non-standard thermocouples. The called standard thermocouple refers to the thermocouple whose thermoelectric power and temperature are in accordance with the national regulations, the allowable error, and the consistent standard indexing table. It has a matching appearance for selection. Non-standardized thermocouples are not as good as standardized thermocouples in scale or order of magnitude, and there is generally no consistent indexing table, which is mainly used for measurement in some special occasions. Standardized thermocouples. Since January 1, 1988, thermocouples and thermal resistances have been produced in accordance with IEC international standards, and designated S, B, E, K, R, J, T (graduation number) seven standardized thermoelectrics It is a thermocouple of China's unanimous planning. (2) The structure of the thermocouple In order to ensure the reliable and stable operation of the thermocouple, the requirements for its structure are as follows: ①The welding of the two thermocouples constituting the thermocouple must be firm; ②The two thermocouples should be connected to each other. Good insulation to prevent short circuits; ③The connection between the compensation wire and the free end of the thermocouple should be convenient and reliable; ④The maintenance sleeve should be able to ensure that the thermoelectrode is sufficiently isolated from the harmful medium.
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